The SQL data types are divided into five categories and that five categories have multiple properties to define a value for a table field.
Character/Strings are used to store strings like names, locations, etc., and even large text files.
With that, you can also store any HTML, CSS, js file content also.
Numeric SQL data types are used to store numeric or decimal numeric data, it can be very small numbers in a bit or tinyint or very large numbers in a bigint format.
Date/Time data types are used to store data and time objects. Storing a date as a date/type object instead of a string can make it very easy to filter out data based on exact date and time where else date in string type u cannot achieve that.
Binary data types are used to store data in its binary form, instead of storing it as strings, which can be a big factor in saving space.
These data types are for special types of data as described below: